Manganese is an essential component of carbohydrate metabolism, reproductive function, and skeletal and cartilage development.* It concentrates in mitochondrial tissue and in the bone, liver, pancreas, and kidney.
Manganese is a critical element in the two metalloenzymes pyruvate decarboxylase and superoxide dismutase, both of which are involved in energy production and immune function.*
Manganese activates various enzymes that facilitate the synthesis of protein and DNA in the production of mucopolysaccharides found in cartilage.*
Manganese is an essential cofactor for superoxide dismutase (SOD), an enzyme that can protect cell membranes from lipid peroxidation and other harmful processes; therefore, a manganese deficiency can result in a deficiency of SOD.*